Greek Astrology


By Auguste Bouché-Leclercq

Translation and Additional Appendix by Lester Ness

Since I have no intention of drawing up a general bibliography of works, ancient and modern, concerned with astrology, I will content myself with indicating the collections which I find already have such bibliographies:

For ancient Greek works, Io. Alb. Fabricii, Bibliotheca graeca, ed. nova curante G. Chr. Harles, Vol. IV. Hamburgi, 1795. Lib. III, c. XXI (pp. 128-170).

For works of every origin: Bibliographie générale de l'Astronomie, by J. C. Houzeau and A. Lancaster. T. Ier (Bruxelles, 1887), pp. 681-858.

Below is a bibliography of sources which I have used, in chronological order:

I. MANILIUS. -- M. Manilii Astronomicon a Josepho Scaligero... repurgatum, Argentorii, 1655. In, with separate pagination (462 pp.): Josephi Scaligeri Jul. Caes. F. castigationes et notæ in M. Manilii Astronomicon. Argentorati, 1655. The first edition dates 1579; the others, 1590 and 1600. I have used, at the same time as Scaliger's edition, that of Fr. Jacob (Berolini, 1846), and the references used are his, since the absence of continuous numeration in Scaliger makes the indications very inconvenient. We hope that some day Manilius will find an editor not only capable of improving his text but also able to understand that an index is not exclusively for the use of philologists. Fr. Jacob's index gives fifty references to the use of sub and sixty to in, but one searches in vain for the names of the constellations, of Augustus or Varus, of Phillipi or Actium. One is less surprised, after this, to find that Fr. Jacob has, in his Diagrammata, arranged the sign

II. NECHEPSO AND PETOSIRIS. -- We do not know, closer than one hundred years, the era in which this great apocryphal work, fabricated probably in Alexandria, was published, whether it was in the time of Sulla (Riess) or in that of Tiberius (Böll), upon which the reputation of "Egyptian" astrology was based, alongside that of the Chaldeans. It was an encyclopedia of cosmogony, astrology and magic, of which we have citations from the fourteenth book. The fragments have been reunited by E. Riess:

Nechepsonis et Petosiridis fragmenta magica, edidit Ernestus Riess (Philologus, Supplementband VI [Gttingen, 1891-1893], pp. 323-394). The preliminary study: E. Riess (same title). Diss. Philol., Bonnae, 1890.

III. Claudius Ptolemy. -- On the life, the works, the philosophy of Ptolemy, a contemporary of Antoninus Pius, see the magisterial study by Franz Boll, Studien über Claudius Ptolemäus. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der griechischen Philosophie und Astrologie (Jahrbb. f. klass. Philol., XXI Supplementband [Leipzig, 1894], pp. 49-244). We are only concerned with his astrological treatise (which must not be confused with the astronomical treatise entitled *M a q e m a t i k h s u n t a x i V * or *M e g a l h * or *M e g _s t h * whence the Arabic name Almagest):

Editio princeps: *K l a u d _o u P t o l e m a _o u P h l o u s i _w s T e t r _b i b l o V s _n t a x i V p r _V S _r o n _d e l f _n *. Norimbergae, in-4o, 1535, with Latin translation of the first two books by Joach. Camerarius [Kammermeister], who also made a new corrected edition at Bâle in 1553, the text (212 pp. in small format) followed by a Latin translation, the latter (251 pp.) made by Ph. Melanchthon.

The famous physician and mathematician Hieronymus Cardanus published in Bâle, in 1568, a Latin translation of Ptolemy, De astrorum judiciis, cum expositione Hiernonymi Cardani Mediolanensis medici, preceded by a treatise De Septem erraticis stellis, lib. I (pp. 1-94), followed by Genituram exempla (pp. 511-715) and the scholia of Conrad Dasypodius [Rauchfuss] (pp. 717-838).

I also use the text inserted by Fr. Junctinus in the first volume of the second edition of his enormous Speculum Astrologiae, universam mathematicam scientiam in certas classes digestam complectens, 2 vol. fol., Lugduni, 1581, with a Latin translation (Quadripartiti operis de judiciis astrorum) which sometimes reproduces that of Cardanus, sometimes is independent. I do not think that he is much influenced by Camerarius of whom he says: eleganti Latinitate decoravit duos primos tractatus Apotelesmaton Ptolemaei. Sed ejus opera non leguntur apud Catholicos, quoniam redolent hæresim Lutheranam (I, p. 554). The two last books are immersed in an enormous commentary (pp. 109-830) where experimental evidence is represented by hundreds of famous people's themes of geniture. Junctinus proposed to comment upon the first two books prope die (Deo dante): but he left it at that.

Before the editio princeps was published, a number of Latin translations appeared (from 1484) such as: Quadripartitum judiciorum opus Claudii Ptolemei Pheludiensis ab Joãne Sieurro brittuliano Bellovacesi pbelle recognitum. Paris, 1519. -- Claudii Ptolemaei Pheludiensis Quadripartitum, printed by Pruckner following Firmicus (above). Basiliae, 1533.

All these translations, where the technical terms are effected by Arabic, are even more incorrect and more obscure than the original text, and I leave to others the trouble of comparing them with each other and with the text.

Along with Tetrabiblos (enriched by several synoptic tables which ought to have been added to the text), the editors give, under the name of Ptolemy, a collection of one hundred aphorisms or astrological rules: *T o _ a _t o _ K a r p _V p r _V t _n a _t _n S _r o n * (Cl. Pt. Centum dicta Centiloquium). This "fruit" or supposed summary of Ptolemy's work is clearly pseudepigraphal.

The Tetrabiblos was genuinely summarized, and very faithfully, in a *P a r _f r a s i V e _V t _n t o _ P t o l e m a _o u T e t r _b i b l o n * attributed to Proclus, published with Latin translation by Elzevir:

Procli Diadochi Paraphrasis in Ptolemæi libros IV de Siderum effectionibus, a Leone Allatio e Graeci in Latinum conversa. Lugd. Batavorum, 1635.

The abridgement is so exact even for the correspondence of the books and chapters that I have judged it superfluous to review it for the reader.

We possess two more ancient commentaries on the Tetrabiblos, one attributed to Proclus, the other to Porphyry, and printed together in Bâle in 1559, with Latin translation by H. Wolf:

*E _V t _n T e t r _b i b l o n P t o l e m a _o u _e x h g h t _V _n ;n u m o V * (In Claudii Ptolemæi Quadripartitum enarrator ignoti nominis, quem tamen Proclum fuisse quidam existimant), pp. 180 pp. fol. This is the author whom I ordinarily call "the scholiast" and whom I refer back to under the name "Anon."

*P o r f u r_o u f i l o s _o f o u E _s a g w g _ e _s t _n _p o t e l e s m a t i k _n t o _ P t o l e m a _o u * (P. phil. Introductio in Ptolemæi opus de effectibus astrorum), pp. 180-

IV. SEXTUS EMPIRICUS. -- About a half-century after Ptolemy, the physician and philosopher Sextus Empiricus wrote a refutation -- and in consequence, an exposé -- of astrological doctrines in the fifth of nine books entitled *P r _V M a q h m a t i k o _V *. The book is entitled *P r _V A s t r o l _g o u V *. See the re-edition Sexti Empirici opera, gr. et lat. of Io. Albertus Fabricius, Lipsiae, 1842, t. II, pp.208-237 (pp. 338-355 H. Estienne).

V. MANETHO. -- Under the name of Manetho, a contemporary of the two first Ptolemies, we have a verse compilation of *A p o t e l e s m a t i k _*, pseuedepigraphal and apocryphal at the same time, for the supposed Manetho is supposed to have used *_x _d _t w n _e r ¢ n b _b l w n k a _ k r u f _m w n s t h l ¢ n* (V, 1 sqq.), archives which contain the teachings of Hermes, Asklepios and Petosiris. We think that it is the work of several authors, the most ancient of whom (books II, III, VI) lived in the time of Alexander Severus. The editions of Koechly were inconvenient for me because of the arbitrary rearrangement of the order of the books, and I followed the edition of Axt and Riegler, Manethonis Apotelesmaticorum libri sex, Coloniae ad Rhenum, 1832.

VI. VETTIUS VALENS. -- We know of several persons named Vettius Valens, physicians and astrologers, of whom the oldest was a contemporary of Varro, augurio non ignobilem (Censorin., 17, 15), the most recent, an astrologer consulted, we are told, on the foundation of Constantinople (Fabric., op. cit., p. 145). Since the astrologer in question here represents the tradition of Petosiris, independent of Ptolemy, the common opinion from Scaliger to E. Riess places him in the time of Hadrian. But the evidence is feeble. Firmicus, too, is a follower of Petosiris, and no one believes that, as someone has said, Constantine was prevented from consulting an astrologer by his Christian faith. Moreover, we now have evidence that Valens is later than Ptolemy, since he cites him, if one can trust an extract of Valens dealing with the Turks (Cod. Florent., p. 129-140). I find most acceptable the opinion of Saumaise, that Valens is a contemporary of Constantine. It is doubtful if we have, in the *_k t ¢ n O __l e n t o V *. The Bibliothèque Nationale owns two manuscripts (Suppl. grec, nos. 330 A and B), of which one (A) is from the hand of Huet (he may have been pleased to recognize a person with a similar name in *O __t i o V*), under the title:

*O __t i o u O __l e n t o V t o _ _A n t i _c e w V _A n q o l o g i ¢ n * libri VIII.

I have renounced using this work thoroughly. It is all casuistry without ideas, and mathematical problems made nearly unintelligible by the uncertainty of the signs and the numbers. I content myself, generally, with using the passages cited by Saumaise and by Riess (in the fragments of Nechepso), for fear of going contrary to my goal, which is to grasp the unity and the reason for being of the astrological doctrines.

VII. JULIUS FIRMICUS MATERNUS. -- The fact that this author has the same name as the contemporary Christian polemicist, author of De errore profanorum religionum, each writing in the reign of Constantine, is a problem of literary history which has not yet been resolved. The editions of the sixteenth century (1497 and 1551) are all corrected and interpolated. I have used (for the last four books alone) the first of the two editions (1533 and 1551) of N. Pruckner:

Julii Firmici Materni Junioris V. C. ad Mavortium Lollianum Astronomicw n libri VIII per Nicolaum Prucknerum astrologum nuper an innumeris mendis vidicati. Basiliae, MDXXXIII, 244 pp. fol.

The philologists have finally turned their attention to this forgotten author. The first four books appeared in 1894 in the Bibl. scr. graec. et rom. Teubneriana, edited by C. Sittl, and another edition (of the same books) by W. Kroll and F. Skutsch, in the same collection (Lips., 1897), replacing the preceding to good advantage. The new editors have given the work, the most voluminous which we possess on the subject, its exact title of Matheseos libri VIII. Completely lacking in critical thought, the book of Firmicus, which represents the "Egyptian" tradition independent of Ptolemy or nearly so, is precious for its very credulity and even for the mediocre intellect of its compiler. Firmicus gives us the recipe for his potpourri: Omnia enim quae Aesculapio Mercurius et Anubis (?) tradiderunt, quae Petosiris explicavit et Nechepso, et quae Abram, Orpheus et Critodemus ediderunt ceterique omnes hujus artis scii ... perscripsimus (lib. IV, Praef.). His goal was, he says, to f

VIII. HEPHAESTION OF THEBES. -- This author, otherwise unknown -- probably an Egyptian from Thebes -- seems to have written, during the reign of Theodosius, a treatise *P e r _ k a t a r c ¢ n* in three books, of which the first two used Ptolemy's Tetrabiblos freely, with many variants. The third is consecrated to *k a t a r c a _* proper. The first book has been published, following the manuscripts in the Bibliothèque Nationale (2417, 2841, 2415), with prolegomenas, and a table of chapters of the entire work, by A. Engelbrecht, Hephaestion von Theben und sein astrologisches Compendium. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der griechischen Astrologie. Wien, 1887. The deplorable state of the one complete manuscript (no. 2417) no doubt discouraged the editor from using this text already used by Saumaise. However, I know that one of our most intrepid paleographers, M. Ch.-Ém. Ruelle, has undertaken to render the work of Hephaistion for us.

IX. PAUL OF ALEXANDRIA. -- About the same time (the reigns of Gratian and Theodosius), Paul of Alexandria, an eclectic disciple of Ptolemy, wrote an opuscule for the use of his son Kronammon, which exists in one edition with Latin translation:

Pauli Alexandri *E _s a g w g _ e _V t _n _p o t e l e s m a t i k _n * (Rudimenta indoctrinam de praedictis natalitiis), ed. Andr. Schato, Witebergae, 1586.

The work has no pagination and I have cited folios, not wanting to cite the long titles of the chapters. To the text of Paul, Schato or Schaton has added scholia of Christian origin, dating to the Middle Ages.

X. VARIOUS TEXTS. -- We hardly know more than the names of a crowd of authors of some rare fragments from astrological treatises: Thrasyllus, Dorotheus of Sidon, Annubion, Hipparchus (earlier than Firmicus), Odapsos, Antiochus of Athens, Protagoras of Nicaea, Apollonius of Laodicea, Apollinarius (earlier than Hephaestion, than Paul of Alexandria, than the scholia of Ptolemy). Hephaestion alone preserves more than three hundred verses of Dorotheus of Sidon, his principle guide to the *k a t a r c a _*. Cf. the four fragments of Dorotheus and of an Annubion, at the end of Manetho in Koechly (Lips., 1858, pp. 113-117).

Fragments of other authors just as unknown have been published by A. Ludwich, Maximi et Ammonis carminum de actionum auspiciis (a translation of the title *P e r _ k a t a r c ¢ n *) reliquiae. Accedunt Anecdota astrologica. Lips., 1877, 126 pp. in-12. A particularly interesting opuscule, since it treats astrology from a Christian and Platonic point of view, is the dialog:

Anonymi christiani Hermippus de Astrologia dialogus (libri II), edited, first by O. D. Bloch (Havigne, 1830), later by G. Kroll and P. Viereck, Lips., 1895.

The Egyptian papyri furnish us with technical documents, themes of geniture, some earlier than Ptolemy. Published under various names, as they are discovered, they are now reunited in the first volume of Greek Papyri in the British Museum: catalog, with texts, edited by F. G. Kenyon, London, 1893. (A second volume, which appeared in 1898, has no astrological texts). These are, in order by presumed date:

1) Papyrus CXXX (pp. 132-139), unedited before Kenyon, dating to the third year of Titus (AD 81). Theme of geniture of Titus Pitenius, preceded by an exhortation to remain faithful to the rules of the ancient Egyptians.

2) Papyrus XCVIII recto (pp. 126-130), -- on the verso the *_E p i t _f i o n* of Hyperides, -- whose date oscillates between 95 and 155 CE; theme of geniture published with commentary by C. W. Goodwin in Mélanges Egyptologiques of F. Chabas, 2e serie, pp. 294-323 (Chalon-sur-Sâone, 1864); again by C. Wessely (Denkschr. der Wiener Akad. Phil.-Hist. Cl., XXXVI, 2 [1888], pp. 150-152).

3) Papyrus CX (pp. 130-132): theme of geniture of Anubion son of Psansnois, of the first year of Antoninus (138 CE) published by W. Brunet de Presle (Notices et Extraits des mss., XVIII, 2 [1865], pp. 236-238) following another copy, and by C. Wessely (op. cit., pp. 152-153).

The information drawn from the Egyptian or Greco-Egyptian zodiacs, studied by Letronne and Lepsius, is now reunited in the first volume of Thesaurus Inscriptionum Aegypti, by H. Brugsch. I . Astronomische und astrologische Inschriften (pp. 1-194), Leipzig, 1883. II Kalendarische Inschriften altaegyptischer Denkmaeler (pp. 195-530), Leipzig 1883. III Geographische Inschriften altaegyptischer Denkmaeler (pp. 531-618), Leipzig, 1884. Apart from the lists of decans, which allow us to control those of Hephaestion, given by Saumaise, these monuments do not add anything to our knowledge of astrological theory. I would say the same of the Greco-Roman zodiacs, such as those of Palmyra, the Farnese globe, the planisphere of Bianchini (see Index) and the ones found on coins. These are ornamental works, incompetent in matters of theory. The study of astrology, I believe, has nothing to learn from archaeology, nor from numismatics, nor epigraphy. The theories were not known to the public and practice was not done in public. Nevertheless, one finds here and there some conjectures which are interesting to the history of astrology, about works of art which may be thought of as them

The works which treat astrology incidentally, such as the Philosophumena said to be by Origen (also known as: Hippolyti Refutatio haeresium), the Preparation for the Gospel by Eusebius, etc., do not have a rightful place here. It is useless, too, to catalog the fragments, hermetic and others, published by Cardinal J.-B. Pitra in the second part of volume V of the Analecta sacra et classica Specilegio Solesmensi parata (Paris and Rome, 1888), which gives us a notable collection of information.

It is to the Byzantine Middle Ages that most of the unedited compilations, astrological and magical, which sleep in our libraries, belong. A certain number figure in the relevant bibliographies of Krumbacher. The pseudepigraphal productions swarm there. The most voluminous is the collection in manuscript 2419 (fifteenth century, 342 fol.) in the Bibliotheque Nationale, of which Engelbrecht (op. cit., pp. 16-20) has published the table of contents. The *a p o t e l e s m a t i k h p r a g m a t e i a * of pseudo-Stephen of Alexandria has been published by H. Usener, De Stephano Alexandrino, Bonnae, 1880. M. Fr. Cumont (Rev. de l'Instr. publ. en Belgique, XL [1897], pp. 1-9) brings a manuscript (Angelicanus) in 149 chapters to our attention, a manual of practical, compiled by the astrologer Palchos (see below, ch. 15) at the end of the fifth century. [I seem to remember reading in Cramer's book on astrology in the Roman Empire that Palchos had been shown to be the same as al-Balkhi, eg, Abu Ma'shar, a medieval astrologer. Can someone verify this for me? LJN] Since then M. Fr. Cumont has done more and better. He has begun a general inventory of all the astrological manuscripts in Greek language, with the intention of next forming an astrological Corpus. To aid him in this task, he has acquired collaborators of whom some, MM. Fr. Boll and W. Kroll, had already turned their scholarly curiosity in the same direction. The first volume or fascicle of the Catalogus Codicum A.

As I have traced a line of demarcation between Greek and Arabic astrology, I believe I ought to indicate the Arabic treatises which were translated into Latin for the use of astrologers by the sixteenth century and where the latter were tangled in and contaminated with the genuine Greek tradition. They are:

1) Along with the Firmicus of N. Pruckner:

Hermetis vetustissimi astrologi centum Aphorismorum liber (pp. 85-98). Origin unknown.

Bethem Centiloquium (pp. 89-93) --De horis planetarum (pp. 110-112).

Almansoris astrologi propositiones ad Saracenorum regem (pp. 93-110).

Zahelis de electionibus liber (pp. 112-114).

Messahallach de ratione circuli et stellarum, et qualiter operantur in hoc saeculo (pp. 115-118).

De nativitatibus secundum Omar, libri III (pp. 118-141).

2) In the edition of the scholiasts of Ptolemy, by H. Wolf: Hermetis philosophi de Revolutionibus nativitatum libri II, incerto interprete (pp. 205-279).

3) Albohali Arabis astrologi antiquissimi ac clarissimi de Judiciis Nativitatum liber unus. Noribergæ, 1549.

4) In two successive editions (Basiliae, 1550 and 1571), Albohazen Haly filii Abenragel, scriptoris Arabici, de judiciis astrorum libri octo, etc. Accessit huic operi hac demum editione (that of 1571) compendium duodecim domorum coelestium... ex Messahalla, Aomare, Alkindo, Zaele, Albenait, Dorotheo, Iergi, Aristotele et Ptolemaeo... collectum, authore Petro Liechtenstein.

5) In the Speculum Astrologiae of Fr. Junctinus, tome I, there are extracts and analyses of all the eastern authors known to the era, especially Albubater (whom Junctinus calls alter Ptolemæus) Abenragel and Albohaly. It is the most repellant collection that one can imagine, but also the most useful for judging the mind of a Renaissance astrologer. The Arabs were also much used in the Apotelesmata Astrologiae christianae, nuper edita a Magistro Petro Ciruelo Darocensi. Compluti (Alcala de Henares), 1521.

As for modern works on Greek astrology, there have been none of note since the classic book of Saumaise, the first -- after Scaliger's commentary on Manilius -- and the last effort of independent learning, used to understand astrology without believing in it and without the goal, or the main goal, of refuting it.

Cl. Salmasii De annis climacteris et antiqua Astrologia diatribæ, Lugd. Batav., 1648 (128 pp. in-12 of prolegomena, not paginated, and 844 pp. of continuous text, encumbered with citations, without paragraphs).

I will only mention the book of Alfred Maury, La Magie et l'Astrologie dans l'antiquité et au moyen age, 1869, all brief references dispersed throughout a universal history, and on connected subjects, where astrology has only a small part and seen only from the outside. The work of J.-B. Friedrich, Die Weltkörper in ihrer mythisch-symbolisch Bedeutung, Würzberg, 1864, which plunders the undefined domain of comparative mythology, is of only mediocre use for those who want, on the contrary, to distinguish, to limit, to make precise. There is, moreover, no discussion of divination but only what may be called the rudiments or environment of astrology. One may review astrology proper in the recent essays, somewhat summary sketches with studies entered by subjects, in:

Albin Haebler, Astrologie in Althertum, Gymn. Progr. Zwickau, 1879, 38 pp., 4o.

A. Bouché-Leclercq, Histoire de la Divination dans l'antiquité, vol. I, pp. 205-257. Paris, 1879.

E. Riess, Astrologie in Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Encyclopaedie der classischen Althertumswissenschaft, vol. II [Stuttgart, 1896], pp. 1802-1828.

There is little scholarly profit in drawing upon the recent treatises on astrology written by and for believers, which I discovered after the fact -- i.e., while my book was being printed (see below, p. 573, 2) -- and not without surprise, were published very recently: Abel Haatan, Traité d'astrologie judiciaire, 2e ed., Paris, 1895, and Fomalhaut, Manuel d'astrologie spherique et judiciaire, Paris, 1897. The first of these works is completely permeated with occultism, the second is all tables and mathematical calculations, accommodating the taste of the day with examples of the themes of nativity of general Boulanger, of the Count of Paris, of President Carnot (whose death, it seems, had been predicted in 1892) and advice, retrospective or actual, to the two successors of the late president. These Petosirises write for a clientele which could hardly care less about astrology's sources, its origin, or it's detailed theory, rather than that of "Dr. Ely Star." The names of the stars

I renounce any encroachment upon the domain of the palaeographers, in giving here the various forms of the astrological symbols which so often in the manuscripts replace the names of the signs, the planets, and the "lots," or of the abbreviations and ligatures which represent the names of the four "centers" of the zodiac. The use of this sort of stenography is the main cause for alterations in the texts. It seems useless to discourse upon the little-known origin of these signs, fabricated, like the Egyptian hieroglyphs, by simplifying the drawings of the zodiacal images or the attributes of the planets. For the latter, I am content to volunteer the current explanation, which assimilates [Saturn glyph] to the sickle of Saturn, [Jupiter glyph] to the first letter of the names of Zeus or to a symbol of the lightning bolt, [Mars glyph], [Venus glyph], and [Mercury glyph] to disks, one traversed by the lance of Mars, the second equipped with a handle, the third with the caduceus of Mercury on top. I give b


[Aries glyph] Aries (*K r i o V * - Arios)

[Taurus glyph] Taurus (*T a u r o V * - Taurus)

[Gemini glyph] Gemini (*D i d u m o i * - Gemini)

[Cancer glyph] Cancer (*K a r k i n o V * - Cancer)

[Leo glyph]. Leo (*L e w n * - Leo)

[Virgo glyph] Virgo (*P a r q e n o V * - Virgo)

[Libra glyph] Libra (*C h l s i * - *Z u g o V * - Libra)

[Scorpio glyph] Scorpio (*S co r p i o n o V * - Scorpius)

[Sagittarius glyph] Sagittarius (*T o x o t h V * - Sagittarius)

[Capricorn glyph] Capricorn (*A i g o k e r w V * - Capricornus)

[Aquarius glyph] (*u d r o c o o V * - Aquarius)

[Pisces glyph] (*I c q u e V * - Pisces)


Luminaries (*t a f w t a *):

[Sun glyph] Sun (*H l i o V * - Sol)

[Moon glyph] Moon (*S e l h n h * - Luna)

Planets proper:

[Saturn glyph] Saturn (*F a e q o n - *K r o n o V * - Saturnus)

[Jupiter glyph] Jupiter (*F a i n w n * - *Z e u V * - Jupiter)

[Mars glyph] Mars (*P u r o e i V * - *A r h V * - Mars)

[Venus glyph] Venus (*F w s f o r o V * - *e w s f w r o V * - *e s p e r o V * - *A f r o d i t h * - Venus)

[Mercury glyph] Mercury (*S t i l b w n * - *H r m h V * - Mercurius)


Hor. -- Horoscope or Ascendant (*w r o s k o p o V * or *w r o n o m o V * [*w r a * or *m o i r a *] - *a n a t o l h * - ascendans)

Occ. -- Occident (*d u s i V * - occidens)

MC. -- Superior culmination, passage to the meridian (*m e s o u r a n h m a * - medium caelum)

IMC. -- Inferior culmination (*a n t i m e s o u r a n h m a * - imum medium caelum)

[ascending node glyph] -- Ascending node of the lunar orbit (*a n a b i b a z w n *) or Head of the Dragon (Caput draconis)

[descending node glyph] -- Descending node of the lunar orbit (*k a t a b i b a z w n *) or Tail of the Dragon (Cauda draconis)

[lot of Fortune glyph] -- Lot of Fortune

[The glossary to Neugerbauer and van Hoesen gives the glyphs for other "lots." LJN]

The signs of the aspects are found only in the figures to which they relate, as well as the "Lot of Genius." For the various forms of the signs mentioned above and for the palaeographic abbreviations, see the photographic facsimile of "Abbreviations grecques copiées par Ange Politien," by H. Omont (Revue des Études grecques, VII [1894], p. 81-88). The signs for the "nodes" in it are the reverse of those given above. They indicate the hemisphere which the star at the node is leaving, rather than the one it is entering. Usage varies upon this point, leading to confusion. Until the palaeographers make a decision, I will follow the the usage of the Bureau of Longitude. As for the figures in the text, they come neither from the manuscripts nor what one may call the pictorial monuments, save figure 41. They are schematics meant to illustrate the text and -- save for the zodiac figures taken from Flamsteed's Atlas coelestia (cf. p. 130, 1) -- I am entirely respons

The abundance of notes will not, I hope, frighten anyone, save readers for whom the book is not meant. One thinks willfully indigestible, at first, those books whose authors have taken pains to sort, painstakingly, their materials and reject from the beginning the didactic explanation of citations, remarks, discussions and accessory considerations, to keep at once their precision and their evidence. The Index permits one to rediscover ideas and facts buried in the foundations of the building, for the use of those who wish to judge its solidity for themselves. As for the plan, I have renounced logical divisions and subdivisions, books, parts, sections, etc., which, out of an excessive concern for clarity, miss the target. The reader will distinguish easily, without such instruction, the Prolegomena (chs. 1-3), Astrology proper or the description of celestial mechanics (ch. 4-11 [pp. 327-347], Apotelesmatica or astrological fortune-telling (ch. 11 [pp. 348-371]-15), and the h

I have the pleasure, as I lay down my pen, of thanking those who have readily and many times guided my research: the Conservateur de la Bibliotheque de l'Université, M. J. de Chantpie, who has given me more than one bit of good advice, and M. Ém. Chatelain, who, at the library of the École des Hautes-Études, has done the same.

[ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY added by the translator]

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Amand, D., Fatalisme et liberté dans l'antiquité grecque; Recherches sur la survivance de l'argumentation anti-fataliste de Carnéade chez les philosophes grecs et les theologiens Chrétiens des quatre premiers siécles (Louvain: Diss., 1945)

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Chwolson, Daniel, Die Szabier und der Szabismus (St. Petersburg, 1859; Amsterdam: Oriental Press, 1965)

Daremberg-Saglio, Dictionnaire des antiquités grecques [articles of appropriate people and subjects]

Darmstadt, C., ed., De Nechepsonis-Petosiridis Isagoge quaestiones selectae (Leipzig: Teubner, 1916) [alternative collection to Riess, 1891-93. LJN.]

Diels H., Doxographici graeci (Berlin, 1879)

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Drijvers, H. J. W., Bardaisan of Edessa (Assen: Van Gorcum, 1966)

Ethiopic (or First) Enoch, in James H. Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, 2 vols. (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1983)

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Hephaistion, Hephaistionis Thebani Apotelesmaticorum libri tres, 2 Vols., ed. David Pingree (Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1973-74)

Islamicate Celestial Globes

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Molnar, Michael, {article showing that the star of the magi was really a royal horoscope}

Ness, Lester, ed., "Guide to the History of Astrology", for a bibliography of the history of astrology

Ness, Lester, Astrology and Judaism in Late Antiquity (Oxford, Ohio: Miami University, 1990). Revised version forthcoming, supplement to the Journal of the History of Ancient Civilizations.

Neugebauer, Otto and Hoesen, H. B. van, Greek Horoscopes (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1959)

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Paulus Alexandrinus, ed. David Pingree (Teubner)

Pauly-Wissowa, Realenzyklopädie der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft [articles of appropriate people and subjects]

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Robinson, James, ed., The Nag Hammadi Library in English

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Tubach, Jürgen, Im Schatten de Sonnen Gottes; Der Sonnenkult in Edessa, Harrân und Hatrâ am Vorabend der christlichen Mission (Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1986)

Weidner, Ernst F., "Gestirn Darstellungen auf babylonischen Thontafeln," Östereichischen Akademie des Wissenschaft, Philosophisch-Historische Klasse. Sitzungsberichte 254, Bd. 2, Abhandlungen. Vienna: 1967, pp. 155.

Wynghene, P. Hilaire de, Les presages astrologiques (Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute Press, 1932)